Yes I have seen the photographs of the bridge and the castle...seem to be the most photographed locations. I understand that the city was well preserved during the war so that almost all of the original architecture remains. I am sure I will run out of time before I run out of locations. Thanks
The old city square (I forgot the exact name) is an amazing location.
The small streets left of the direct path going from Charles bridge to the Castle are also nice.
If you have some more time, I strongly advice you to try visiting one of the old libraries, among these the one located close to Charles bridge (I believe it is in an observatory). You will not be allowed to take pictures, but the room is just amazing. This is definitely one of the most breathtaking indoor spaces I have ever seen.
Classical music is also paramount in Prague, spending the evening in a Church listening to a concert might be a nice way to end the day.
Prague is actually best seen in winter, you might want to check it out again at that time of the year.