As I said early if you and the client cannot agreed upon the various fees (Travel and travel time) then.... A. Say "no" B. They can call the next photographer on the list. C. Or look for room in the budget to charge more to cover your travel expenses.
Since A & B are basically the same thing, then maybe your 3rd suggested option here to Bob should be, to re-look at what you are actually charging them for.
Because it was when I did that, that I found away around this common problem.
So Bob, if you don't happen to be working for clients at 'the top-end of the advertising business in the north of America', like Jeffery - or who don't fully understand how it all works at 'the top-end of the advertising business in the north of America', then I suggest you keep it simple for these clients to understand - and just charge them a 'Licence fee for the use of your images' instead.
That way, you don't have to say "no" to them or waste time discussing things that clearly are not important to them (which is obviously why they don't what to pay for it).
Example of the words I use when quoting:-
To produce & provide [number of] images of [whatever the subject is with a brief description] at [wherever the location is].
For exclusive use, for [their name or company name] to use these images for:-
Media use: [list the various media they want to use my images in].
Period of use: [state the number of days, weeks, months or years they want to use my images for] (end date).
Territory of use: [state the region, country or countries they want to use my images in].
(BUR: [my base rate is for standard use]).
Licence fee based on the above: [the amount that they will need to pay, based on the above information].
So if they then wanted to talk over the price I had quoted and reduce it down - I would then talk to them about either reducing the number of images they need to use or talk to them about reducing the Media use or reducing the Period of use or reducing the Territory of use - until we come to an agreement, on what they are actually going to get from me (in their hands, so to speak, at the end of the day) for the price.
In other words, I negotiate the fee based on the 4 main things that are important to them, rather than talking about the things at are important to me. Because at the end of the day, it's the amount they are prepared to pay that will ultimately determine what I can afford to do - and so that's the first thing that needs to be sorted out, before I can really say what it is I'm going to be able to do and/or provide them with, for that amount money.
And to help me calculate what the fee should be, for any additional use over and above my base rate, I use the Association of Photographer's usage calculator here: Usage calculator
Just a suggestion.[/list]