If one puts a Wratten #25 or #29 in front of the lens for digital as they would for normal B&W film, will it work the same way for B&W digital images?
On a monochrome sensor, yes. On a Bayer CFA sensor there will be small differences, but in general it will have the same effect.
Some of the digital cameras have built in 'filter' settings. Red, yellow, green and whatnot. But nothing as to what filter it actually is or is emulating. Nothing as to whether it is a Wratten #8, 13 or whatever.
So, can I get the B&W contrast I am used to with film - and a bit more control at the shooting stage - by using filters on the lens at the time of shooting?
You will get hugely more control by shooting digital color and adjusting the filter characteristics/effect in post-processing. Here
is a quick impression of the tonal controls of the older version of TopazLabs "Black and White Effects" plugin filter. The current newer version has many useful additions that give even more control, and quicker selections of color filters.